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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2020-09-11 01:33:22 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000018
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameTrigonelline
DescriptionTrigonelline, also known as caffearin or gynesine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus. Trigonelline is a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). Trigonelline exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Outside of the human body, Trigonelline is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as arabica coffee, fenugreeks, and grape wines and in a lower concentration in yellow bell peppers, beers, and garden tomato (var.). Trigonelline has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as potato, green beans, common buckwheats, tartary buckwheats, and quinoa. This could make trigonelline a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. An iminium betaine that is the conjugate base of N-methylnicotinic acid, arising from deprotonation of the carboxy group.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Methyl-3-pyridiniumcarboxylateChEBI
1-MethylnicotinateChEBI
1-Methylpyridinio-3-carboxylateChEBI
3-Carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide inner saltChEBI
Betain nicotinateChEBI
Betaine nicotinateChEBI
CaffearinChEBI
CaffearineChEBI
CoffearinChEBI
GynesineChEBI
N'-methylnicotinateChEBI
N-Methyl-nicotinateChEBI
Nicotinic acid N-methylbetaineChEBI
TrigenellineChEBI
TrigonellinChEBI
1-Methyl-3-pyridiniumcarboxylic acidGenerator
1-Methylnicotinic acidGenerator
1-Methylpyridinio-3-carboxylic acidGenerator
Betain nicotinic acidGenerator
Betaine nicotinic acidGenerator
N'-methylnicotinic acidGenerator
N-Methyl-nicotinic acidGenerator
Nicotinate N-methylbetaineGenerator
N-Methylnicotinic acidHMDB
Trigonelline chlorideHMDB
Trigonelline iodideHMDB
Trigonelline tosylateHMDB
Trigonelline ionHMDB
3-Carboxy-1-methyl-pyridinium hydroxide inner saltHMDB
CoffearineHMDB
N-MethylnicotinateHMDB
TrigenollineHMDB
TrigonellineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC7H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight137.136
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight137.047678473
IUPAC Name1-methylpyridin-1-ium-3-carboxylate
Traditional Nametrigonelline
CAS Registry Number535-83-1
SMILES
C[N+]1=CC=CC(=C1)C([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H7NO2/c1-8-4-2-3-6(5-8)7(9)10/h2-5H,1H3
InChI KeyWWNNZCOKKKDOPX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumJSpectraViewer
Species of Origin
SpeciesAnimalia; Plantae
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • N-methylpyridinium
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.32 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area44.01 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity48.15 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
User Submitted Data
Not Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000875
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002237
KNApSAcK IDC00001555
Chemspider ID5369
KEGG Compound IDC01004
BioCyc IDMETHYLNICOTINATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrigonelline
METLIN ID273
PubChem Compound5570
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18123
References
General References
  1. Nishina Y, Sato K, Miura R, Shiga K: Substrate recognition and activation mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase: a study using substrate analogs. J Biochem. 2000 Aug;128(2):213-23. [PubMed:10920257 ]
  2. Slow S, Miller WE, McGregor DO, Lee MB, Lever M, George PM, Chambers ST: Trigonelline is not responsible for the acute increase in plasma homocysteine following ingestion of instant coffee. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;58(9):1253-6. [PubMed:15054441 ]
  3. Dellow WJ, Chambers ST, Lever M, Lunt H, Robson RA: Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999 Feb;43(2):91-9. [PubMed:10221661 ]
  4. Rozan P, Kuo YH, Lambein F: Free amino acids present in commercially available seedlings sold for human consumption. A potential hazard for consumers. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar;48(3):716-23. [PubMed:10725139 ]
  5. Daglia M, Tarsi R, Papetti A, Grisoli P, Dacarro C, Pruzzo C, Gazzani G: Antiadhesive effect of green and roasted coffee on Streptococcus mutans' adhesive properties on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Feb 27;50(5):1225-9. [PubMed:11853508 ]
  6. Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K: Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):34-45. [PubMed:15956813 ]